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Profile on Education

Plan to Develop First-class Universities and Top-level Research Centers

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  • Date:95-07-06

I. Blueprint and Vision:

  1. Blueprint

    In the 21st century, the era of the knowledge economy, innovation and R&D has become the key to national competitiveness. Whether knowledge can make further progress lies primarily on R&D results by universities.

    (1) Domestic Developments

    1. The expansion of higher education impacts the allocation of educational resources: In the past, resources were allocated equally without establishing the mechanisms of competition and assessment. The drawback was excessive dispersal of resources, which failed to encourage schools to establish individual characteristics according to their specialties and impacted the rise of academic competitiveness.
    2. The quality of teaching at universities is facing challenges: While the population of students in higher education grows rapidly, resources are unable to expand correspondingly. The rapid growth of private universities and the basic educational needs posed by primary, secondary schools, young children, aboriginals and the handicapped have all been competing for resources available to national universities. Insufficient resources have led to stagnation of university teaching and research levels, making improvement almost impossible.
    3. University development is dogged by lack of personnel and funds: Since the introduction of school affairs funds to national universities, government funding has been reduced by the year. The limitation on the number of personnel has led to excessively high student-teacher ratios in new and adjusted departments. In recent years, the ratio of university students to full-time teachers has been rising.

    (2) International Developments

    In recent years, advanced nations, such as the UK 's university appropriation committee, US ' project funds of dept of higher education, Japan and Germany , provide dedicated funds to assist in the development of key universities. China provides RMB$ 600m (NT$2.4bn) subsidy to key universities such as Peking and Tsinghua Universities each year. South Korea invests $200bn (NT$5.8bn) each year to promote its 7-year Brain Korea 21 (BK21) program with the objective of upgrading Seoul University to one of the top 100 universities in the world. Japan has come up with guiding principles for reforming the structure of universities with the objective of turning 30 universities into the world-class universities (or research centers). The California State Government is planning to subsidize four inter-university research centers US$ 100m (NT$3.5bn) each center for four years. The EU in 1994 began investing sizable amounts in basic research projects. In the future, it will invest Euro$1.3bn (NT$45.5bn) in nano research.

    (3) Future Challenges

    Taiwan has had as many as 145 universities. In the last 10 years, the number of universities has grown by more than 200%, with educational resources unable to be expanded correspondingly, which seriously impacts the improvement of the quality of education. University development has been dogged by insufficient personnel and funds. Insufficient funds and excessively high student-teacher ratios has resulted in lower teaching and research funds for teachers and decreasing student unit costs. In 2002, the budget for higher education of the MOE was $53.1bn. The figure dropped to $50.7bn in 2004. Teaching and research funds are far lower than those of Europe, the US, and Japan, while teacher salaries are only one-fifth of those of Harvard University and student unit costs being $160,000 for each student, as opposed to $ 2m per student at Tokyo University.

    Training individuals in higher education is the key to Taiwan 's survival and internationalization. Failure to cope with international competition and demand for academic innovation and consolidation will lead to loss of academic advantage to neighboring Asian nations (Seoul University, Sung Kyun Kwan University, the Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Peking University, and Tsinghua University) and giving up the opportunity to pursue further excellence (such as surpassing The Australian National University, University of Melbourne, Osaka University, and Nagoya University) and lagging behind in this international competitive trend. In the 21st century, the era of the knowledge economy, national competitiveness will soon run dry and be marginalized.

  2. Vision

    This plan is put forth according to suggestions made in the Higher Education Macroscopic Planning Report prepared by the Higher Education Macroscopic Planning Committee to raise the competitiveness of higher education and to build up competitive funding and the Ten New Major Construction Projects by the Council for Economic Planning and Development.

    The plan will be based on outstanding universities of various fields. An academically competitive environment will be established to develop first-class universities and top-level research centers with an orientation of respective outstanding fields. The objectives are at least 10 top-level research centers or fields in Asia in five years and at least one internationally first-class university in 10 years (such as one of the top 100 universities worldwide, or one of the top 80 universities by US university standards.)

II. Concepts:

The plan adopts the standards for teaching, research personnel, and facilities of internationally first-class universities. The goal is to assist universities in establishing the characteristics of their respective fields. Through the input of competitive funding, universities are assisted to improve their infrastructure, hire distinguished foreign teachers, and participate in international academic cooperation to ensure their teaching and research levels and industrial-academic performance are up to the standards of first-class universities in order to develop first-class universities and top-level research centers.

The concepts include:

  1. Plan to develop first-class universities:
    Competitive funds will be used to help large research-based universities with development potential in order to raise the overall efficiency of teaching and research resources utilization, consolidate human resources, improve management strategies, establish healthy organization and system operations, develop optimal scales, and lift student educational funding to US$10,000 and above per person per year.
  2. Top-level research center (field) plan:
    According to their respective fields of expertise, research-based universities will be encouraged to establish inter-university (nation) centers or consolidate with research institutions to pool human resources and equipment investments to establish R&D teams, develop national key areas, establish opportunities to consolidate R&D and innovation, reward teaching characteristics, establish teaching abilities and results assessment indicators, conduct departmental adjustments and curricula in an effort to establish key areas.

III. Content and Strategy:

The plan comprises two sub-plans. Each name of each sub-plan and its strategy is detailed below:

  1. Plan to develop first-class universities:
  2. (1) Helping at least one university with development potential to consolidate human resources, improve management strategy, establish a healthy operating system, and adequate development scale.

    (2) In addition to conforming to MOE-prepared indicators, first-class universities should prepare reference indicators according to international comparison standards: The goal is, in 10 years, at least one university becomes a first-class university (such as one of the top 100 universities worldwide, or one of the top 80 universities by US university standards, and one of the top 50 in 15-20 years).

  3. Plan to develop top-level research centers (fields):
  4. (1) Help outstanding universities of various types. According to their teaching, research needs, or industry-academia science and technology cooperation, development of characteristics of humanistic society, develop departments of outstanding fields or research centers.

    (2) To be considered departments or research centers of outstanding fields, they have to meet MOE-specified indicators and establish reference indicators according to international standards: The objective is to become one of Asia 's first-class universities in 5 years.

IV. Qualifications Needed to Apply:

  1. First-class universities:

    To develop first-class universities, input of educational resources has to be increased. If using Seoul University as basis for comparison, student unit budget has to reach an average of US$10,000 per student each year. Most importantly, teachers and research personnel have to possess a certain degree of quality and scale, while operating efficiency of schools has to be raised.
  2. (1) Possessing the potential to become one of Asia 's first-class universities in 5 years, one of the world's top 100 universities in 10 years, one of the world's top 50 in 15-20 years, and several top-level research centers in the world.

    (2) Becoming a legal entity: Good school performance. National universities must promise to make becoming a legal entity a first priority with plans put forth. Before the process for becoming a legal entity is completed, the school must establish a school affairs development consultation committee that includes external personnel. Based on the spirit of becoming a legal entity, a more efficient operating system should be established to appoint the president and department heads, make decisions, and review, reward, and dismiss individuals. According to MOE-prepared basic legal entity principles, the school should complete the process for establishing a legal entity in the second year and submit it to the MOE.

    (3) Economy of scale: The consolidation of several schools has the advantage of economy of scale and is favorable for breakthroughs. Such schools should submit a letter of intention to consolidate in its plan, detailing the number of years it would take to meet the requirement, the steps to be taken, and the schedule. Before consolidation is complete, the school must submit its strategy for achieving resources consolidation and promise to complete consolidation operations for administration, departments and schools in five years. If so, the school's relevant statistics can be included.

  3. To develop world-class top-level research centers, the ample academic and research resources have to be taken advantage of. The purpose is to develop departments or research centers of outstanding fields as the key characteristic of a school. Through development of key areas in the school, school-wide teaching and research can be improved. The schools' existing departments developing centers of outstanding areas within the school and between schools, and with foreign nations, having the potential to become one of the top 50 schools worldwide in 10 years.
  4. (1) Research-based schools not receiving subsidies for being first-class schools with assistant professor ratio of 75% and above. The school is well run and agrees to establish a school affairs development consultation committee that includes external members. A more efficient operating system is established to appoint the president and department heads, make decisions, and employ, review, reward, and dismiss individuals.

    (2) International dissertation assistant professor and above an annual average of 0.8 papers per person. Some parts can be replaced with number of books, exhibitions, performances, patents, and industry-academia cooperation according to application category and specialty.

    (3) In terms of humanities, the school may submit the teacher's outstanding research results in related fields without being limited by average number of papers.

V. Application Procedure

  1. Schools meeting the application requirements may submit a written plan. Preliminary plan for review should not exceed 15 pages with an abstract of two pages. After list of schools passing preliminary review is posted, schools will brief the review committee. The revised plan submitted to the committee for a second review shall not exceed 50 pages.
  2. If several schools to be consolidated, they shall jointly submit a consolidation plan.
  3. The plan shall include:

    First-class universities
    Schools meeting application requirements that intend to apply for the plan shall submit an application plan including the following items:
  4. (1) Current status and self-assessment of the school's competitive edge, analysis of advantages and disadvantages, and strategy for improvements.

    (2) Year-by-year assessment indicators for achieving objectives according to current status (including quantitative and qualitative indicators).

    (3) Strategies to achieve objectives

    1. Plan to adjust operating strategy and organizational operation.
    2. Plan to strengthen the infrastructure of the school.
    3. Plan to consolidate research institutions within the school and with those of other schools.
    4. Plans to train leaders and foster all-around education, humanities and arts.
    5. Steps to take to invigorate the school's overall operating mechanism and lift its performance in an effort to attract top foreign academics.
    6. Plan to employ distinguished teachers.
    7. Plan to strengthen teaching and research efficiency.
    8. Plan to increase the number of students to be admitted in the undergraduate department in response to society and industry needs.
    9. Plan to strike a balance between development of humanities and natural sciences.
    10. Plan to create world's top-level research centers in key areas.

    (4) Financial planning and year-by-year funding needs

    Top-level research centers (fields)
    Schools meeting basic application requirements that intend to apply for the plan shall file a written consolidation plan including the following:

    (1) Current status and self-assessment of the school's competitive edge, analysis of advantages and disadvantages, and strategy for improvements.

    (2) Year-by-year assessment indicators for achieving objectives according to current status (including quantitative and qualitative indicators).

    (3) Strategies to achieve objectives

    1. Plan to adjust operating strategy and organizational operation.
    2. Plan to strengthen the infrastructure of the school.
    3. Plan to consolidate research institutions within the school and with those of other schools.
    4. Steps to take to invigorate the school's overall operating mechanism and lift its performance in an effort to attract top foreign academics.
    5. Plan to employ distinguished teachers.
    6. Plan to strengthen teaching and research efficiency.
    7. Plan to increase the number of students to be admitted in the undergraduate department in response to society and industry needs.
    8. Plan to reach first-class levels in key areas (limited to 1-3).

    (4) School-wide support measures to achieve objectives and steps to take to raise school-wide teaching and research levels in order to facilitate establishment of top-level research centers.

VI. Review Standards and Procedure

  1. Review Standards

    A: First-class universities
  2. (1) The management and organizational operating system of the school (including preparation to become a legal entity):

    1. Letter of consent to agree to become a legal entity is raised at school affairs meeting with written plan prepared.
    2. Merger of two schools requires approval by school affairs meeting and preparation of implementation plan.
    3. Management of school budget: Allocation of funds and adequate of use of public and private sector resources. That is, establishing the school's independent funds review mechanism and reasonable self-financing percentage.
    4. Results of recruiting outstanding individuals (domestic and foreign teachers, students, and research personnel) and relevant support strategy that includes flexible salaries and employment of personnel.
    5. Incorporating school-wide or inter-school human resources, organizational operation administrative infrastructure that includes reform of administrative organization (including department elimination mechanism), mechanism to evaluate and eliminate teachers and research personnel.
    6. Mechanism and method to raise teaching performance and creativity of academic research that includes strategies for promoting scientific and technological R&D by industry and academia, developing humanistic characteristics, and promoting general knowledge education.

    (2) School infrastructure

    1. Improve libraries, instruments and equipment that include library collections, collection of characteristic books, web exchange facilities, instruments and equipment, and establishment of friendly campus environment.
    2. Construction of classrooms and dormitories that include e-teaching equipment, dormitory for academics, housing for international students, and percentage of student dormitory supply.
    3. Construction of research equipment that includes research rooms for teachers, research rooms for graduate students, and logistical resources.

    (3) Results of raising teaching and research performance by the school:

    Year-by-year development indicators to become one of the world's top 100 universities

    1. Teacher quality: Percentage of professors and assistant professors, percentage of teachers with doctoral qualifications, number of professor having won domestic and foreign awards – Nobel Prize, key international associations, academicians, or awards.
    2. Through inter-school consolidation, outstanding academic fields within the school reach the standards of world's first-class universities.
    3. Number of papers issued on and cited from well-known international periodicals, Impact Factors that include SCI, EI, SSCI, and A&HCI.
    4. Academic scale: Numbers of research projects, industry-academia projects, and intellectual property rights (including patents, technology transfers, and professional writings).
    5. Teaching excellence measures: Submitting establishment of well-rounded mechanism to evaluate teaching quality, providing teachers with professional assistance (such as Faculty Development Center), teaching evaluation of outstanding teachers, mechanism to reward and eliminate teachers, process to plan programs offered by departments, and mechanism to periodically review and evaluate.
    6. Raising the degree of internationalization: Submitting methods used to work with domestic and foreign schools and research organizations to jointly design curricula, establish colleges and research centers, and confer degrees and results. Such as promoting joint school system, number of foreign students admitted (international student centers), holding international symposiums, teaching English, and campus environment.
    7. Student quality: Raising student unit cost and ratio of students to teachers.
    8. Alumni achievements
    9. Qualitative indicators will be prepared by the above review committee formed by domestic and foreign experts and academics invited by the Executive Yuan.

    B: Top-level research centers

    Teaching, research performance and planned year-by-year indicators:

    1. Quality of teaching, research personnel at research centers: Percentage of professors and assistant professors, percentage of teachers with doctoral qualifications, number of professors having won domestic and foreign awards – Nobel Prize, key international associations, academicians, or awards. Number of papers carried by and cited from well-known international periodicals, Impact Factors, and numbers of research projects, industry-academia projects, and intellectual property rights (including patents, technology transfers, and professional writings).
    2. Steps taken to recruit distinguished individuals (domestic and foreign teachers, students, and research personnel) and relevant support strategy.
    3. Raising teaching performance and the creative mechanism and method of academic research.
    4. Methods used to cooperate with domestic and foreign schools, and research institutions and results.
    5. The school's overall support resources: Manpower, funds, instruments and equipment, and construction space.
    6. Qualitative indicators shall be decided by the review committee.
  3. Review Timetable – Two reviews of qualifications are held within five years; the first in 2005 and the second in 2007. If a school fails to obtain subsidy in 2005, the school can submit application plan in 2007.
  4. Review Evaluation Mechanism
    1. A review committee is formed by rep uta ble academics and experts from both Taiwan and abroad to review universities that have the potential to become first-class universities in their respective fields. Their performance is evaluated based on the annual qualitative and quantitative objectives as listed in their written plans.
    2. Depending on the actual needs, the review committee may establish relevant working groups or ask credible organizations, such as the US A.A.U. or National Research Council under National Academy of Sciences, for help in conducting the evaluations.
    3. Preliminary plan is to select no more than two universities in the first year according to the overall performance of the schools and the superiority of their projects, and help them become first-class universities. Ten key universities or research centers are assisted to develop superior fields in order to raise their relevant teaching and research facilities and levels. Decisions will be made based on established review standards and the outcome of the review by review committee.
    4. Schools having obtained subsidies shall form a consultation committee with members comprising top academics from Taiwan and abroad. They shall offer consultations and make suggestions for the promotion of the plan.
  5. Performance Evaluation and Elimination Mechanism
  6. (1)

    1. Each year, schools will be visited to understand and evaluate their performance with the results published.
    2. Evaluate progress of schools' reform of organizational systems and achievement of qualitative objectives. If determined by review committee to be failing in achieving objectives, the school shall withdraw from participating in the plan.

    (2) In the third year, assessment of the overall performance will be held.

VII. Plan Progress

  1. Plan Schedule:
    Building first-class universities and recruiting distinguished individuals are long-term projects. In order to continue development of first-class universities and offer incentives for schools to be willing to cooperate with the plan, the government has pledged funding for 10 years. Funding for the first five years in the amount of $50bn will be financed by special budgets. Funding for the second five years will be financed by the MOE through annual budgets. Allocation, tracking, and review of funding are the responsibility of the review committee.
  2. Operation Schedule:
    On approval of the plan, a review committee was formed in March to tie in with the schedule to announce guidelines for the plan of operation by the end of April 2005. A school's written plans shall be submitted to the MOE by mid June. Decisions on the plan of first-class universities and top-level research centers will be finalized by the end of August.

VIII. Funding Requirements

  1. Since the academic competition and incentive environment is not yet well-rounded, to proceed with the plan requires establishment of greater incentives in order to encourage schools with good performance to conduct quality competition. After consulting the standards of advanced nations and considering the financial status of the government, a budget of $100bn for a period of 10 years was prepared. This is the equivalent of raising the unit student cost at well-performing universities to over US$10,000. Review results of various plans are used as a basis to appropriate funds.
  2. Estimate of Annual Funding:
    Funding for first-class universities is $35-60bn ($3.5-6bn each year, depending on the number of schools subsidized) (as a reference, Seoul University moved into the world's top 100 in seven years with $5.8bn invested each year). Funding for top-level research centers depends on the number of first-class universities subsidized with a maximum of $65bn.
Year-by-year budgets for various sub-plans of the plan ($ 100m )
Phase 1 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total
Total Budget 100 100 100 100 100 500
First-class Universities 35-60 35-60 35-60 35-60 35-60 175-300
Top-level Research Centers 40-65 40-65 40-65 40-65 40-65 200-325
Phase 2 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
Total Budget 100 100 100 100 100 500
First-class Universities 35-60  35-60 35-60 35-60 35-60 175-300 
Top-level Research Centers 40-65 40-65 40-65 40-65 40-65 200-325 

 

IX. Budget preparation and appropriation of funds

  1. Budget Preparation Principles:

    (1) The ratio of capital accounts to current accounts of the budgets for the Plan to Develop First-class Universities and Plan to Develop Top-level Research Centers will be 4:6. The ratio may be flexibly adjusted depending on review results.

    (2) According to Additional Article 9-1 of the Special Statute for Expanding Public Investments, annual budgets not completely implemented with no contractual obligations and approved by the MOE may be reserved for three years.

  2. Procedures for Review and Appropriation:
    The above budgets are prepared under the MOE. Funds allocated each year are appropriated after review by the review committee according to MOE-prepared review principles and operating procedures.
  3. Items Subsidized:
  4. (1) The funds offered by the plan aims at raising overall infrastructure of schools. Funds received shall be used to improve or upgrade teaching, purchase books and instruments needed for research, structures and facilities, holding international academic exchanges, employ off-the-payroll personnel or pay for non-statutory expenses of on-the-payroll personnel (salaries paid to employ well-known domestic and foreign academics, experts, technicians, postdoctoral research personnel, and first-class domestic and foreign teachers to assume the position of specially-appointed professors). Max imum pay for the duration of employment may be the same as salaries received overseas in order to raise teaching and research levels. The school shall establish flexible salary standards.

    (2) In order to make effective use of the funds, the planning and operating results will be included in annual on-the-spot evaluation and evaluation of overall performance, to be used as the basis for evaluating and continuing the plan and appropriating funds for the following year.

X. Projected Benefits:

  1. Direct Impact:
  2. (1) In 10 years, at least one university becomes one of the world's top 100 universities. In 15-20 years, the university becomes one of the world's top 50 universities with several research centers in the university having the potential of becoming top-level research centers in the world.

    (2) At least 10 outstanding fields, departments or research centers become Asia 's first-class in five years. In 10 years, they will have the potential of becoming one of the top 50 of their respective fields.

    (3) Raising the R&D quality of universities and their influence on and visibility in international academic circles:
    Actions to take include increasing research awards won by university teachers, the number of individuals chosen to be academicians by renowned research institutions, and number of teachers or research personnel becoming editors of academic periodicals. Increase in papers, patents, and technical transfers can make academic contributions. In addition, they can be converted into production capacity of various occupations and industries with portions of the incomes being donated to schools for R&D purposes.

    (4) Attracting distinguished foreign teaching and research individuals, training individuals of cutting-edge industries:
    Training individuals of cutting-edge industries is the foundation of academic research and corporate innovations. Ten years of investment in the training of said individuals will contribute to social services for over 30 years. Teachers and research personnel are the principal parts of academic upgrading. Recruitment of distinguished foreign individuals instantly raises teaching and research quality. In addition, the move will bring in research projects and opportunities for international academic cooperation.

    (5) Establishment and substantive exchange and cooperation between transnational academic organizations:
    When participating in leading international research projects through direct cooperation with world-renowned universities and research organizations, we can learn from their experience in R&D. In addition, we can increase the depth and breadth of international exchange events teachers and students participate in the future.

  3. Indirect Impact:
  4. (1) Establishing an objective award mode to apply for competitive funding with outstanding projects:
    Preparation of government awards and subsidies to private schools and contributions to school affairs funds will be based on using outstanding projects to apply for competitive funding, while the appropriation mode will be determined by the R&D performance of the schools.

    (2) Improving the overall academic environment:
    Using extra funding to establish incentives does not impact the normal operation of schools. Encouraging schools to create their own characteristics and develop in diverse directions may encourage schools of various types to actively engage in the pursuit of excellence in their respective specialized fields. In addition, it can adjust operating method and development strategy of universities.

    (3) Consolidating inter-office academic research resources:
    In addition to consolidating human resources within a school and between different schools, this move will further consolidate research manpower and resources of the National Science Council, research centers of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Academia Sinica, and the Industry Technology Research Institute.

    (4) Raising the overall competitiveness of the nation:
    Innovation and R&D are a couple of key indicators of the increase of a nation's overall competitiveness. Recruitment of distinguished individuals and development of papers, patents, and technology transfers are the direct expression of innovation and R&D. Evaluation of overall competitiveness is favorable for economic development, promoting upgrading of industries, creating job opportunities, and building a positive image for the nation.

XI. Cost-benefit Analysis:

Selective Plan (The plan – Plan to Develop First-class Universities and Top-level Research Centers):

  1. The Qualitative Part:
  2. (1) Internationalization and pursuit of excellence of higher education:
    Funds are provided to universities having the potential to become research-based universities to assist them in the effort of becoming internationalized and in the pursuit of excellence. In addition, the funding will enable research fields having obtained certain results (such as genome, optoelectronics, and nano research) to bear fruit and reach world-class levels. Other types of schools can develop their characteristics through rewarding teaching, industry-academia cooperation, and humanities projects of the plan in order to establish an irreplaceable teaching and research status in Asia or worldwide. As for other schools, since the plan encourages consolidation of manpower and resources, and close cooperation between schools, it will encourage improvement of teaching and research environment and raise the levels of quality. Therefore, its impact is comprehensive.

    (2) Improvement of the organizational operation of universities:
    Since becoming legal entities, through adjustment of organization, regulation of the operating mode, personnel, and financial operations of universities have been relaxed with the objectives of university autonomy and performance orientation achieved. Meanwhile, the school's management and organizational operating efficiency can be established with national universities' international competitiveness strengthened and becoming first-class universities.
    Said schools' trial plans and relevant performance will be used as the basis for further adjustment of university operation. In the short term, it provides opportunities for some schools to reform and innovate. In the long term, it lays the foundation for quality development of future universities.

  3. The Quantitative Part:
  4. (1) Training individuals
    Individuals that can be trained to become distinguished individuals of master's degree and above in 10 years:

    1. By departments and schools: An annual average of 1,000 individuals with master's degree and above (including PhD and the equivalent). After ten years, there will be 1,000×10=10,000.
    2. By fields: Number of high-tech or specialty individuals trained: If 100 each year, after 10 years there will be 100×10=1,000.

    (2) Numbers of papers published and cited

    1. An annual average of 3,000 papers projected to be published by each school with a combined total of 8,000. After 10 years, there will be 80,000 papers published, which will help to raise the number of papers published and our ranking.
    2. Number of persons who are the editors of world-renowned periodicals: The number increases by 20 each year. After 10 years, there will be 200. Number of persons who are members of world-renowned academic organizations: The number increases by 30 each year. After 10 years, there will be 300. Renowned academic organizations include National Academy of Engineering, IEEE, and OSA.
      It has positive meaning in raising our academic position and academic influence.
    3. Key research fields: Twenty items are expected to rank in Asia's top three with ten items ranked first.

    (3) Recruiting distinguished teachers and research personnel: An annual average of 50, and 500 after ten years.
    In addition to raising R&D capacity, it will help in lifting our international competitiveness.

    (4) Conducting cooperation of various natures and degrees with domestic and foreign universities or academic research organizations: It is estimated strategic alliances, research projects, or cooperation plans will increase by 100 items annually on average and 1,000 items in 10 years.
    Directly absorbing foreign teaching, research development experiences can establish an effective channel for school internationalization, which will be beneficial for students and teachers to seek further education and conduct exchange activities.

    (5) Assisting in professional industry-academia cooperative research centers:

    1. The industry-academia cooperative projects of assisted schools are projected to grow by an annual average of 10-15% with 8,000 accumulated in 10 years. Among them, patents and technology transfers are estimated to grow by 20-30% annually with at least 2,000 accumulated in 10 years. Meanwhile, 500 technology transfers are worth $1bn, while 300 innovations will create an output value of $10bn. In addition to increasing industry revenue, it will have a direct impact on industry upgrades and related innovations and R&D.
    2. Industry-academia cooperation and technology R&D will provide industry technology R&D support and consultation services to high-tech industries that include electronics, communication, optoelectronics, biochemistry, medical care, nano, and environmental protection, and conventional manufacturing industries that include methods, machinery, agriculture, and marine.
    3. Number of individuals expected to be trained: An annual average of 1,200 and 12,000 in 10 years.
Cost-benefit Analysis
  Benefits Costs
Direct impact:
  1. Establishing internationally-recognized first-class universities (world's top 100)
  2. Developing top-level departments and research centers (10 of Asia 's top universities)
  3. Raising innovation and R&D ability and academic influence of universities
  4. Recruiting distinguished teaching and research individuals and training high-caliber individuals
  5. Establishment of transnational academic organizations and formation of substantive exchange and cooperation
  1. Raising the quality of teachers and students:
  2. (1) An annual average of 50 internationally-renowned academics conducting research and heavyweight academics giving lectures in Taiwan .

    (2) An annual average of 1,000 more high-tech individuals or individuals in characteristic fields.

  3. Raising teaching and research results:
  4. (1) An annual average increase of 30 teachers winning international academic awards or becoming academicians.

    (2) An average of 3,000 papers published by each school.

    (3) An annual average increase of 20 university teachers becoming editors of internationally renowned academic periodicals.

    (4) Index of papers being cited rises at an annual average of 10%.

    (5) Cooperative exchange between university research centers and with foreign universities reaches 100 items annually on average.

    (6) An annual average of 1,000 industry-academia cooperation projects with 100 technology transfers and 200 patents. An average investment of $ 300m annually. Each year, 300 firms move into innovation incubation center, attracting investment in the amount of over $5bn.

    (7) Improvement of university organizational operations

  1. First-class universities:
    An annual budget of $3.5-6bn to assist research-based universities with development potential in consolidating manpower and resources, improving management strategy, and establishing well-rounded operating system. Meanwhile, the objectives of year-by-year developments are established.
  2. Top-level research centers:
    $4-6.5bn will be invested in university consolidation and transnational, inter-school research center cooperation in order to raise research results.
Indirect impact
  1. Establishing an objective awarding mode for applications by outstanding projects for competitive funding.
  2. Improvement of the overall academic environment
  3. Consolidating inter-office academic research resources
  4. Lifting of national competitiveness
  1. Preparation of funding of government subsidies to private schools and school affairs funds to public schools is based primarily on outstanding projects applying for competitive funding.
  2. Establishing an academically competitive environment, promoting schools establishing their own characteristics for diversified development.
  3. Consolidating the manpower and resources required by research projects and organizations including National Science Council, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Academia Sinica, Industrial Technology Research Institute.
  4. Promoting social and economic developments, improving the country's international image.
 
    Total: $10bn a year

XII. Alternative Plan:

Continuing to promote Plan to Consolidate Research-based Universities

Assisting in the establishment of first-class universities and research centers

In 2000, the MOE began promoting the Plan for Universities to Pursue Academic Excellence. In 2002, the MOE began promoting the Plan to Raise Basic Education of Key Graduate Schools of National Universities. In terms of pooling individuals, forming interdisciplinary research teams, and improving the infrastructure of doctoral programs, both plans have made notable progress. With the three-year funding of $5.3bn, 28 research teams were formed with an output value of papers published domestically and abroad reaching over 3,500. However, consolidation of human resources and organizational operations had not been launched. In 2002, the Plan to Promote Consolidation of Research-based Universities was unveiled. Investment made in the past two years reached $1.7bn. The performance review conducted in 2003 indicated that though the scale and potential of some research fields had reached international standards, the limited investments were unable to encourage schools to invest in R&D of priority fields. Coupled with personnel and accounting restrictions, it was difficult to establish universities with organizational operating efficiency. With limited funding, it will take some time before the objective of turning universities and departments into schools with international competitiveness. In the ever more competitive international academic environment, the opportunity for Taiwan universities to become outstanding universities will soon disappear.

Funding received by schools in 2005 $ 100m
Schools Taiwan Univ. Cheng Kung Univ. Tsing Hua Univ. Chiao Tung Univ.
Amounts 30 17 10 8
Schools Central Univ. Sun Yat-sen Univ. Yang Ming Univ. Chung Hsing Univ.
Amounts 6 6 6 6
Schools Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology Chengchi Univ. Chang Gung Univ. Yuan Ze Univ.
Amounts 3 3 3 3

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